c++,byte,overflow,increment,underflow

I can at least explain your results with 0x0 by 0xA: On Windows, a newline in text files is typically represented as \r\n rather than \n and the file I/O functions will helpfully make this translation for you. In this case you don't desire the conversion though so you could...

floating-point,ieee-754,underflow

The IEEE754 2008 standard (ยง7.5) defines that the underflow exception shall be signalled when the result is non-zero, and strictly between -MinNorm and +MinNorm: it leaves it up to implementation as to whether this is before or after rounding, so you could have values just below minNorm that get rounded...

Typically, you get trouble when adding very large and very small values, because this can lead to a high relative error. Get rid of this summation (1+exp(x)), it quickly runs out of the range of double values when x is large. log(1+exp(x)) log(1+1/exp(x))*exp(x)) log(1+1/exp(x))+log(exp(x)) log(1+1/exp(x))+x An alternative is the use...

math,overflow,guava,integer-arithmetic,underflow

As GregS wrote, If a and b are of opposite signs(*) then addition of them cannot possibly overflow. Now, if they're of the same sign, the sign of the result must be the same if there's mo overflow. (*) With zero and positive treated the same, which doesn't matter and...

binary,overflow,addition,twos-complement,underflow

It seems like whenever you have 3 carries in a row, it drops a 1. Same with the next one, 15 + 7. It isn't doing the carry correctly. 11 <- carry 0011 = 3 +0111 = 7 1010 = 10 ...